external image B-NOVA_TEU_HI.jpgString Theory

Overview of String Theory

The string theory consists of many ideas and conclusions brought up by groups of physicists to determine how our universe and everything around us works. The building blocks of this theory consists of other unusual topics such as superstrings, branes, and extra dimensions. Many physicists are attracted to this theory because it involves many mathematical and physical ideas that are able to mesh together. The physicists that work with the string theory hope that it will help explain the universe as well as how gravity and quantum physics go together.

History of string Theory
Back in 1968 the foundation of a basic string theory was thought up by Gabriele Veneziano with the help of his dual resonance model. Soon after Gabriele, groups of physicists inferred the dual resonance model to form a simple definition for the string theory, stating that the universe is made up of vibrating strings. In 1971, the Supersymmetry is added and as a result creates superstring theory. Then in 1985 a major part of the String Theory was developed called Heterotic String Theory.

Interesting History
Over the years the String Theory has been through many changes in names. The name of the String Theory is constantly being changed and being called different things by different people.
The list below are other alternative names:
-Bosonic string theory
-Superstring theory
-Supersymmetric string theory
-Matrix Theory
-Brane world scenarios
-F-theory
Now a days the string theory is also known as “the theory of everything.”

D branes
D branes are membranes of different dimensions, included anywhere from the zero dimension to the 3rd dimension. D branes are the objects that are connect to the ends of open strings that are attached.
Properties
There are key features that make up and are necessary for the String Theory. In the theory it says that all of the objects located in the universe are compiled of strings and branes of energy that are consistently vibrating. The theory tries to bring together general relativity and quantum physics. The theory found a relation between different types of particles, bosons and fermions. The theory consists of multiple dimensions to the universe.
Looking deeper
The string theory allows for the possibility of parallel universes. Also there is another theory tagged along with the superstring theory called the holographic principle stating the translations of information in space relates to information on the surface of that same space and time. New concepts and features are still waiting to be discovered.
Supersymmetry
In string theory the concept of supersymmetry just says that each particle has an identical superpartner. There at rules for the superpartner of fermions and bosons. If a fermion begins with an “s” the superpartner of an “electron” is the “selectron”. The superpartner for a boson ends in “-ino” so the “photon” would be “gravitino”.
Normal Particle Superpartner
Higgs boson Higgsino
Neutrino Sneutrino
Lepton Slepton
Z boson Zino
W boson Wino
Gluon Gluino
Muon Smuon
Top quark Stop squark


Cites

www.superstringtheory.com/history/history3.html
www.dummies.com/how-to/content/string-theory-for-dummies-cheat-sheet.html
www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae138.cfm?CFID=27170005&CFTOKEN=d884a02d591918ed-ACC46351-15C55-EE01-B99FF73BE06D0111 http://members.wolfram.com/jeffb/visualization/calabi-spin.gif